The Department of Materials Science and Engineering since its inception has been
involved in research to upgrade the locally sourced mineral and coal resources for industrial
applications. Emeritus Professor Afonja carried out pioneering work on the washability, basic
characterization as well as the production of formed coke from local coals. Furthermore, Professor
Adeleke in collaboration with other researchers carried out basic and technological
characterization as well as pilot scale tests on selected local and foreign coals and propose blend
formulations that include appreciable contents of local coals. He also collaborated with other
researchers at laboratory and pilot levels to upgrade local solid minerals such as iron ores and
columbite for industrial applications. Another staff of the Department and a former Managing
Director of the Prototype Engineering Development Institute, Ilesa, Dr Adetunji did pioneer work
on the use of cyanide extract from cassava to extract gold from the Ilesa goldfield deposits. He has
also collaborated with other researchers to produce gold nanoparticles from the local gold deposits.
The details on the contribution of the staff of the Department in the Solid Minerals Development
Unit to the development of mineral resources in Nigeria is presented herewith.


Emeritus Professor Afonja’s contributions to knowledge has been in the areas of coal processing
for metallurgical cokemaking. He is the pioneer worker in the area of formed coke production
using the non-coking local coals.

Emeritus Professor Afonja’s publications:

 Afonja, A. A. (1986). Plastic behaviour of Enugu Coal on heating. Journal of Mining
and Geology.
 Adewoye, O. O., Adebanjo, P.A,, Afonja, A. A., and Alabi, R. A. (1985). Carboxyl
group, cation exchange and optical properties of Sub-bituminous coals. Nigeria Journal of
Mining and Geology, 22 (1 & 2), 115-118
 Afonja, A.A. Lau, I. T and Leeder, W (1977). A formed – Coke Pilot Plant Facility.
Institute for Briquetting and Agglomeration, 14, 239 – 250.
 Afonja, A.A. (1977), Washability Charts for some Nigeria Coals. Journals of Mining
and Geology, 14(1) 47 – 49.
 Afonja A.A. (1975) Chemical, Petrographic and coking studies of Enugu Coals.
Journals of mining and Geology, 12(1) 40 – 42. Abstract Published in coal Resources
properties and Evaluation. British Coke Research Association Publ. (1976) Vol. 3 (3), 195.
 Afonja, A.A. (1974). Evaluation of the Coking characteristics of Some Nigeria coals
by thermogravitmetry. West African Journal of Science, 19(2), 171 – 74.
 Afonja, A.A. (1973) Preliminary studies on the briquetting of Nigerian coals. Institute
for Briquetting and Agglomeration.
 Afonja, A.A. (2003). The role of coal in the Nigeria Energy Policy Strategy.
Proceedings of the conference of Nigerian Energy policy, Enugu pp 26 – 36.
 Afonja, A.A. (1998) Minerals exploitation and development: a vision for Nigeria in
the 21st century. Proceedings of the 34th conference of Nigerian Mining and Geosciences
society, pp 1- 11.
 Afonja, A.A. (1996). Coal blend design for blast furnace production. Carbon ’96 the
British carbon Group, 173 – 175.
 Afonja A.A. (1994). Coal Blending for Blast furnace coke production: The Effect of
Blend composition and pre- Treatment on coke quality. Proc. International congress on
Metallurgy and Materials Technology, Sao Panlo, Brazil, Oct. 9 – 14, 1994, 191 – 198.
 Afonja, A.A. (1994) Coal: Resources Development and Utilization, Proceedings,
NSCh. E/UNDP Conference Lagos, 27 – 34.
 Afonja, A.A. (1986). A study of the potential of Low – grade coals for the production
of blast Furnace coke. Proceedings of the fifth international iron and steel congress,
Washington D.C., (1986), 239 – 245.
 Afonja A.A. (1984). The Potential for the use of Nigeira’ low grade coals
for metallurgical coking proc. First National Steel Conference Ovwian-Aladja (1983), 51
– 95.
 Afonja A. A. (1981). Fluidized-bed carbonization of Nigerian Coals. Proc. Of the
Nigerian Society of Chemical Engineers Conf., Ile-Ife, (1981), 52-58
 Adegoke, O.S., Enu, E. I, Ajayi, T.R., Ako, B.D. and Afonja A.A. (1981). Tar Sands
– a new energy raw materials in Nigeria. Proceedings of the Symposium on new Raw
Materials (WEMIRAM) Karlovy, Czecholovakia.
 Afonja, A. A. (2006): Coal Resources of Nigeria: Technical properties and utilization
potential, NASENI

Dr A. Ogunleye Publications

 Ogunleye, A. and Adelakun, S. A; The potentials of utilizing local raw materials in the
Nigerian Iron and Steel Industry. Proc. Nigerian Soc. Chem. Engrs. Conference 1977.
 Ogunleye, A.; The potentials of Nigerian Columbite. Proceedings of the Conference
the Nigerian Society of Mining and Geo Sciences. Jos, 1979.


Prof. Adeleke’s contributions to knowledge have been in the areas of mineral/coal
processing and hydrometallurgy. In the area of coal processing, he has obtained the basic physical
and chemical properties of local and imported coals such as proximate analysis, crucible swelling
numbers, Gieseler fluidity and dilatometric G-coking capacity values in order to categorize them
according to International Standards and this has made it possible to determine the conditions
under which the local coals can produce cokeable blends with imported coking coals. The
dilatation test produced the Simonis’ G-value, a valuable index for the evaluation of cokeability
prior to the more expensive pilot scale carbonization tests. In addition, the data obtained in the
course of his research work has been used to demonstrate the conditions under which the empirical
Coke Research Establishment (CRE) formula can be used to predict the micum strength M40 of
coke on the basis of bench scale data. The significance of selected laboratory coking tests and the
use of a neutron-gamma ray online analyzer have also been demonstrated. In addition, a
mathematical model with an associated binary interval search method to obtain cokeable coal
blends (including appreciable quantities of non-coking coals) for cokemaking at minimum cost
has been developed. The use of the method has shown that coal cost can be reduced by up to 29%
with the incorporation of appreciable quantities of local low grade coals.
Furthermore, his research on the pilot scale coal carbonization in collaboration with other
workers has led to the derivation of process parameters for the efficient production of coke using
coking improvement techniques such as preheating and stamped charging. The preheating method
was used to improve the micum strength of coke during pilot scale carbonization. He has also
carried out hydrometallurgical leaching processing of coals, iron ore and bitumen to reduce their
gangue contents and thus maximize their inputs in making cokeable coal blends.
Collaborative bench and pilot scales mineral processing research had resulted in the
upgrading of Itakpe iron ore to Midrex grade concentrate. In addition, a waste columbite tailings
was successfully upgraded for metal value recovery. In the research carried out on Platinum Group
Metals (PGM), test dosages of sodium iso-butyl xanthate (SIBX) was applied on the bead milled
Middle Group 1-3 PGM ore blend. Characterization and separation studies on copper, gold and an
ultra-fine PGM tailings to recover chromite were also carried out. A design to improve an aluminasilicate crushing plant was also carried out. The use of an optical sorting technique to preconcentrate waste gold rocks has also been elaborated. Prof. Adeleke has also collaborated with
others to study the role of forging during the inertia friction welding of superalloy RR 1000. The
research has led to better understanding of the dissolution response of the 𝛾
′phase to thermal and
mechanical effects.

Professor Adeleke’s Publications

Contributions to Books
Okanigbe D.A., Popoola, A.P.I. and Adeleke A.A. (2017): Hydrometallurgical Processing of
Copper Smelter Dust for Copper Recovery as nanoparticles: A Review. In Energy Technology
2017, 205-226
ii. *Adeleke A.A., Adebayo, A.N., Ibitoye B.O, Oluwabunmi K.E. (2018): Leaching Recovery
of Silver from used Photographic Film. In TMS 2018 Materials Fundamentals, 163-169,
iii. Okanigbe D.A., Popoola, A.P.I. and Adeleke A.A. (2018): Enhanced Recycling of Waste
Smelter Dust from Existing and Proposed Smelter Plant at the Palabora Copper (PTY) Ltd,
Limpopo, South Africa. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 391,
No.1, 012006

Published Journal Articles:

i. Ajayi, J.A. and Adeleke, A.O. (1997): Failure analysis of railway Brake blocks,
Engineering Failure analysis, 4 (3), 205-213. UK.
ii. Adeleke, A.O., Makan, R.S., and Ibitoye, S.A. (2006): Characterization of Ajaokuta coke for
blast furnace ironmaking, Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering
5(2), 155-165. USA.
iii. Adeleke, A.O. and Onumanyi, P. (2007): Numerical computations to produce cokeable coal
for cokemaking at the Ajaokuta Steel Plant, Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization
and Engineering 6(2), 121-134. USA.
iv. Adeleke, A.O., Makan, R.S. and Ibitoye, S.A. (2007): An evaluation of the coking
characteristics of Polish coking coals for cokemaking with non-coking Nigerian coals, Petroleum
& coal, 49(1), 1-6. Slovenia.
v. Adeleke, A.O., Olulana, A.O., and Ibitoye, S.A. (2007): Study on the reliability of Coke
Research Establishment Micum 40 Formula to predict coke Micum 40 strength at the Ajaokuta
Steel Plant, Nigeria, Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 6(2),
135-142. USA.
vi. Adeleke, A.O., Makan, R.S. and Ibitoye, S.A. (2007): Studies on the Gieseler plastometry
parameters of the American Pittson coal for metallurgical cokemaking at the Ajaokuta Steel plant,
Nigeria, Pacific Journal of Science and Technology (PJST), 8(2), 208-211. USA.
vii. Adahama, A.B., Adeleke, A.O., Olulana, A.O. and Ibitoye, S.A. (2008). Effects of stamped
charging on the strength of coke from the weakly coking Australian Agro-Allied coal blend mixed
with coke breeze, Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering 7(4), 347-
353. USA.
viii. Olulana, O.A., Adeleke, A.O., Adahama, A.B. and Ibitoye, S.A. (2009): Pilot scale
carbonization studies on Polish Bellview coals for metallurgical cokemaking, Petroleum & coal,
51(1), 8-12. Slovenia.
ix. Adeleke, A.O., Olulana, O.A., Adahama, A.B., Makan R.S. and Ibitoye, S.A. (2009): A
Prediction of micum strength of metallurgical coke using dilatometric parameters of parent coals,
Petroleum & coal, 51(2), 75-79. Slovenia.
x. Ola, S. A., Adeleke, A.O., Usman, G.A., Odunaike, A.A., Kollere, A.M. and
Ajiboye, P.O.(2009): Study on magnetic concentration of Itakpe sinter concentrate to a Midrex
grade concentrate, Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology, 3(3), 400-407.
xi. Ola, S. A., Usman G.A., Odunaike, A.A., Kollere, S.M., Ajiboye, P.O., Adeleke,
A. O. (2009): Pilot Scale Froth Flotation Studies to Upgrade Nigerian Itakpe sinter
Grade Iron Ore to a Midrex-Grade Super-Concentrate, Journal of Minerals and
Materials Characterization and Engineering 8(5), 405-416. USA.
xii. Adeleke, A.O., Makan, R.S. and Ibitoye, S.A. (2010): Pulverized injectability
assessment of selected Nigerian coals for Ajaokuta blast furnace ironmaking, Journal of Applied
Science, Engineering and Technology, 10(10), 13-17. Nigeria.
xiii. Ibitoye, S. A., Adeleke, A. A., Oluwole, O. O., Tiamiyu, A.O. and Ode, E. B. (2010): The
effects of A5TB refiner on the fatigue strength of 6063 Al alloy, Journal of Applied Science,
Engineering and Technology, 10(10), 1-6. Nigeria

xiv. Olulana, O.A., Adeleke, A.A., Adahama, A.B. and Ibitoye, S.A. (2011): Effects of
pre-heating on the micum strength of coke from a coal blend including 5% non-caking Nigerian
Okaba coal, Petroleum & coal, 53(1), 8-12. Slovenia.
xv. Adeleke, A. A. and Onumanyi, P. O. (2011): Mathematical optimization of non-coking coals
inclusions for metallurgical cokemaking, Petroleum & coal, 53(3), 212-217. Slovenia.
xvi. Adeleke, A. A., Ibitoye, S. A., Afonja, A. A. (2012): Effects of caustic leaching
demineralization on the crucible swelling properties of Lafia-Obi coal, Nigeria, Pacific Journal of
Science and Technology (PJST), 13(1), 91-96. USA.
xvii. Adeleke, A. A., Makan, R.S. and Remyshak, S. Oluwasegun, K.M. (2012): An
evaluation of the significance of some Laboratory coking tests in predicting the cokeability of
coals, Pacific Journal of Science and Technology (PJST), 13(1), 97-104. USA.
xviii. Oluwasegun, K.M, Adedayo, A.V, Adeleke, A. A. and Oluwole, O. O. (2011):
The role of forging during inertia friction welding of superalloy RR 1000, Journal
of Engineering Research, 16(4), 29-41. Nigeria.
xix. Ayeni, F.A., Madugu, I. A., Ibitoye, S. A., Adeleke, A.A., Sukop, P. and Abdulwahab, M.
(2012): Secondary Recovery of Columbite from tailing Dump in Nigerian Jos Mines Field, Journal
of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering 11(6), 587-595. USA.
xx. Ajao, J.O., Adeleke, A. A., Oluwabunmi, K. E. (2012): Studies on the three-stage dilute
hydrochloric acid oven leaching of a low grade iron ore, Ife Journal of Technology, 21(2), 15-19.
xxi. Ayeni, F. A., Ibitoye, S. A. and Adeleke, A. A. (2012): Development of a Wet Magneticgravity Processing Route to Recover Columbite from Jos Mines Field Tailings Dump, Nigeria,
Journal of Mining & Metallurgy, 48 A (1) (2012) 63-72. Serbia.
xxii. Adeleke A. A., Popoola, A. P. I., Mekgwe T. (2013): The Improvement of the Efficiency
of An Aluminosilicate Crushing Circuit, Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, 49 A (1) (2013)
31 – 36. Serbia.
xxiii. Langa, N. T. N., Adeleke, A. A., Mendonidis, P., Thubakgale, C. K. (2014): Evaluation of
Sodium Isobutyl Xanthate as a Collector in the Froth Flotation of a Carbonatitic Copper Ore,
International Journal of Industrial Chemistry, DOI10.1007/S 40090 014-0025-5. Springer
Online. USA.
xxiv. Sibiya, B., Adeleke, A. A., Popoola, A. P. I, Olubambi, P. A. (2014): An Evaluation of the
Calibration Process of a Neutron-gamma Ray Online Coal Analyzer, International Journal of
Coal Preparation and Utilization, 34(1), 10-18. UK.
xxv. Adeleke, A. A., Nemakhavhani, T. W., Popoola, A. P. I (2014): Evaluation of the
Cyanidation Leaching of Gold in a Waste Rock Ore, Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical
Engineering, 33(2), 87- 91. Iran.
xxvi. Madilen N. M., Adeleke A. A. and Mendonidis P. (2015): Effects of Sodium Iso-butyl
Xanthate Dosage on the Froth Flotation of Bead Milled Middle Group 1-3 PGM Ore Blend,
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology, 4(1):59-63. Malaysia.
xxvii. Kgaka M, Adeleke A. A., Popoola A. P. I., Olubambi P. A. (2015): An Evaluation of the
Efficiency of Commodas Optical Sorting of Gold Waste Rock Dumps, Mineral Processing &
Extractive Metallurgy Review, 36: 123–128, 2015. UK.
xxviii. Mokegthwa M. F., Adeleke A. A., Mendonidis P., Adeoye M. O. (2015): An Evaluation
of Sodium Ethyl Xanthate For The Froth Flotation Upgrading of a Carbonatitic Copper Ore,
Journal of Physical Science, Vol. 27(2), 13–21, 2016, Malaysia.
xxix. Mankge T. M. C., Adeleke A. A.and Mendonidis P. (2015). Optimization of Chromite
Recovery from Cyclone-Spiral Circuit Concentration of a UG2 Ore, Journal of Engineering
Research. Volume 20, No. 1, Nigeria
xxx. Shai M. E., Adeleke, A. A., Popoola, A. P. I. (2015): Effects of Re-Routing of Concentrate
Streams in the Industrial Scale Froth Flotation of Lower Group 6 PGM Ore, Journal of
Engineering Science and Technology (JESTEC). Vol. 11, No. 121660–1668, Malaysia.
xxxi. Otunniyi, I.O., M. Oabile, Adeleke, A.A., Mendonidis P. (2016): Copper activation option
for a pentlandite–pyrrhotite–chalcopyrite ore flotation with nickel interest, International Journal
of Industrial Chemistry, DOI 10.1007/s40090-016-0087-7. Springer Online
xxxii. Okanigbe D.A., Popoola, A.P.I. and Adeleke A.A. (2017): Characterization of Copper
Smelter Dust for Copper Recovery, Procedia Manufacturing, 7, 121-126 5
xxxiii. Okanigbe D.A., Popoola, A.P.I. and Adeleke A.A. (2018): Thermal Analysis and Kinetics
of the Oxidative Roasting Proess of a Copper Smelter Dust, The International Journal of
Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Springer, 94(5-8), 2393-2400
xxxiv. Phahla D., Adeleke A.A., Popoola A.P.I, ,Omidiji B.V. (2018): Optimization of the
hydrolysis cake filtration process in Platinum extraction, Leonardo Journal of Sciences, Issue 32,
January- June, 2018, p.93-105

Edited and Refereed Conference Proceedings:

xxxv. Ibitoye, S.A., Adeleke, A. A., Aramide, F.O., Olawale, J.O., Tiamiyu, A.O.,
Oluwasegun, K.M. and Abdul-Kareem T.M. (2011): Some mechanical properties of SIC-treated
recycled HDPE, Proceedings, Faculty of Technology Conference (OAU-TekConf, September 25-
29, 2011), 279-283. Nigeria.
xxxvi. Okanigbe D.O., Popoola, A.P.I. and Adeleke AA (2017): Hydrometallurgical processing
of copper smelter dust for copper recovery as nanoparticles: a review, 2017 TMS Annual Meeting
& Exhibition, San Diego Convention Center, USA February 28-3rd March, 2017. USA
xxxvii. Okanigbe D.O., Popoola, A.P.I. and Adeleke AA (2017): Hydrometallurgical processing
of copper smelter dust for copper recovery as nanoparticles: a review, 2017 TMS Annual Meeting
& Exhibition, San Diego Convention Center, USA, February 28-3
rd March, 2017. USA
xxxviii. Olaniyi T.J., Popoola A.P.I. and Adeleke A.A (2015). Effects of Thiol Collectors Mixture
for optimizing recovery of a low grade carbonatite copper ore using Senfroth 38 Frother: In
Proceedings of Copper Cobalt Africa-8th Base Metal Conference 2015, Victoria Fall, Zambia,
July 6-9th, 2015
xxxix. Otunniyi I. O., Adeleke A. A., Seidu S. O. and Oloruntoba D. T. (2013). Technology
alternatives for sustaining coke demand of the Ajaokuta blast furnace iron making from Nigerian
coal deposits, 29th AGM and Conference of the Nigerian Metallurgical Society, Ajaokuta Steel
Company Limited, October 28-November 1, 2013, 81-86, Conference Hall, Ajaokuta. Nigeria.


Contribution to Knowledge
In the area of mineral processing, Dr Adetunji’s works involve the characterization and
beneficiation of the Nigerian tantalite and other minerals. This has become the baseline for
tantalum exploitation and value addition in the Nigerian tantalum industry, as well as contribution
to the data base of the solid minerals in the country. A novel contribution is the study of cyanide
potential of some cassava varieties in Nigeria. This was with a view to developing a process for
the leaching of gold with cyanide solution from cassava which reduces the cost and eliminate the
complex procedures associated with the importation of reagents hitherto employed for the
cyanidation process. Currently, and in collaboration with the African University of Science and
Technology, Abuja, the Nigeria; barite is being studied with an attendant domestic beneficiation
processes for the ore to meet the API standard for utilization in oil drilling operations.
Dr Adetunji’s publications:
i. W. O. Siyanbola, A. Y. Fasasi, I. I. Funtua, O. Afolabi, A. A. Adesiyan, A.R. Adetunji; (2004)
“Elemental Composition of Rutile From South-Western Nigeria Using X-ray Techniques”;
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 215, 240-245. United Kingdom.
ii. A. R. Adetunji, W. O. Siyanbola, I. I. Funtua, S. O. O. Olusunle, A. A. Afonja, and O.O.
Adewoye (2005) “Assesment of Beneficiation Routes of Tantalum Ores From Key Locations
in Nigeria”,Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization and Engineering, vol 4, No 2,
85-93. USA.

iii. A. R Adetunji, A. O. Ajayi and G. A. Aderounmu (2007): An Object Oriented Programming
Approach to Simulation of a Quantitative Output of Tantalum Compounds From Tantalum/
Niobium Extraction Circuit”; Ife Journal of Technology, vol 16(2), 49-56. Nigeria.
iv. A. Adetunji, A. R. Adetunji, O. O. Ocan, W. O. Siyanbola, O. O. Adewoye and A. A.
Afonja (2008); “Microscale Studies of Niobium-Tantalum Minerals From Komu,
Southwestern Nigeria”; Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization, vol 7, No 4, 367-
378. USA.
v. O. D. Ogundare, M. O. Adeoye and A. R. Adetunji (2016), “Laboratory Preparation of the
Precursor for Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles”, American Chemical Science Journal
14(4):1-8. India.
vi. O. D. Ogundare, A. R. Adetunji and M. O. Adeoye (2016); “Gold Cyanidation and
Characterization of Itagunmodi Gold Deposit Using Cyanide From Cassava”, Nigerian
Journal of Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 7, No 2, 56-60. Nigeria.
vii. O. Ogundare, M. O. Adeoye, A. R. Adetunji and O. O. Adewoye (2011); “Gold
Nanoparticle: A Review”, In: Proceedings of the Materials Science and Technology Society
of Nigeria, Akure, Nigeria, Nov. 21-249, 2011, pp459-464. Nigeria
viii. Olasupo. D. Ogundare, Mosebolatan O.Adeoye, Adelana R. Adetunji,, Olusegun
O Adewoye (2013), “Potential toxic levels of cyanide in Cassava grown in Nigeria for
Gold leaching application”, Novus International Journal of Biotechnology & Bioscience
Vol 2 No 4, 1-7.
ix. Olasupo Daniel Ogundare, Mosobalaje Oyebanji Adeoye, Adelana Rasaq
Adetunji and Olusegun Oyeleke Adewoye (2014), “Beneficiation and Characterization
of Gold from Itagunmodi Gold Ore by Cyanidation”, Journal of Minerals and Materials
Characterization and Engineering, 2, 300-307.
x. Kayode Emmanuel Oluwabunmi, Abraham Adewale Adeleke, Adelana Razak
Adetunji, Samson Olaitan Jeje, Abiodun Ayodeji Abioye, Olusola Adedayo Adesina,
Fatai Afolabi Ayeni, Folahan Peter Ibitoye (2014), “2k Factorial Experiments on Factors
that Influence the Recovery of Gold during the Upgrade of Ilesha-Itagunmodi Gold Ore
through Froth Flotation”, Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and
Engineering, 2, 32-39